National hero Dr. Jose Rizal, the Great Plebeian Andres Bonifacio, and former Sen. Benigno “Ninoy" Aquino Jr. are the three most identified Filipino heroes, according to a survey conducted this March by pollster Social Weather Stations.
The SWS said the three topped answers of some 1,200 respondents who were asked to name five true Filipino heroes. The nation marks Araw ng Kagitingan on Saturday.
“Sino-sino po ang mga taong kinikilala ninyong tunay na bayaning Pilipino? Maaari po kayong magbanggit ng hanggang limang tao (Who are the persons whom you consider a genuine Filipino hero? You can name at up to five persons)," the question said, according to a news release posted on SWS’ website Saturday.
Ninoy's late widow Cory Aquino came in fourth, while the so-called brains of the Katipunan, Apolinario Mabini, was fifth.
Among Filipinos still living, only President Noynoy Aquino, boxing icon Manny Pacquiao, and former President Joseph Estrada were named by more than 1.5 percent of respondents. Aquino garnered 2.9 percent, Pacquiao 2.6 percent, and Estrada 1.8 percent.
Some three of four respondents (75 percent) named Jose Rizal, 34 percent named Andres Bonifacio, and 20 percent named Aquino, father of incumbent Philippine President Benigno "Noynoy" Aquino III.
Following the three in the “Top 10" list were:
- the late former President Corazon Aquino, 14 percent
- Apolinario Mabini, 14 percent
- former President Emilio Aguinaldo, 11 percent
- former President Ferdinand Marcos, 5.1 percent
- former President Ramon Magsaysay, 4.3 percent
- former President Manuel L. Quezon, 3.8 percent
- Lapu-Lapu, 3.7 percent.
Rounding out the list were:
- Melchora Aquino, 3.2 percent
- Marcelo H. Del Pilar, 3.0 percent
Noynoy Aquino, 2.9 percent
Emilio Jacinto, 2.8 percent
- boxing icon and Sarangani Rep. Emmanuel “Manny" Pacquiao, 2.6 percent
Gabriela Silang, 2.6 percent
Gregorio Del Pilar, 2.2 percent
- Juan Luna, 1.9 percent
Manuel Roxas, 1.8 percent
former President Joseph Estrada, 1.8 percent
former President Diosdado Macapagal, 1.6 percent
- the late actor Fernando Poe Jr., 1.6 percent
“Fifteen percent consist of names obtaining less than 1.5 percent of responses, 3 percent had no one in mind, and another 3 percent did not give answer," SWS said.
It added no list of names was provided to prompt the respondents.
Area and class patterns
Majorities in all areas named Jose Rizal as the person considered to be a genuine Filipino hero: 79 percent in Balance Luzon [Luzon minus Metro Manila], 79 percent in the Visayas, 74 percent in Metro Manila, and 68 percent in Mindanao.
The SWS added that Bonifacio consistently followed at second place with 47 percent in Metro Manila, 35 percent in the Visayas, 34 percent in Balance Luzon, and 25 percent in Mindanao.
Benigno Aquino Jr. was third most cited in Metro Manila (33 percent), Visayas (20 percent), and Balance Luzon (18 percent).
Cory Aquino was third most cited in Mindanao (19 percent).
Rizal was also the most cited person considered to be a genuine hero Filipino in all classes: 79 percent in class E, 75 percent in class D or the masa, and 70 percent in class ABC.
Bonifacio and Benigno Aquino Jr. were equally the second most mentioned persons in class ABC, both obtaining 23 percent, while Andres Bonifacio was second most cited in class D (35 percent) and class E (32 percent).
Benigno Aquino Jr. was third most cited in class D (22 percent) and class E (12 percent), while Apolinario Mabini was third most cited in class ABC (20 percent).
The survey was conducted March 4 to 7 using face-to-face interviews of 1,200 adults in Metro Manila, the Balance of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao.
Sampling error margins of ±3% for national percentages, and ±6% for area percentages, applied to the survey.
The area estimates were weighted by National Statistics Office medium-population projections for 2011 to obtain the national estimates.
SWS said the survey item on persons considered to be genuine Filipino heroes is not commissioned, but is done on its own initiative and released as a public service.